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Northern Ireland at Peace – 19 years on from the Belfast Agreement  

By Srimal Fernando Global Editor, The Diplomatic Society
Nineteen years ago on 10 April 1998, after years of determined negotiations, in the early hours of Friday morning United States special Envoy for Northern Ireland, Senator George Mitchell said, “I am pleased to announce that the two governments and the political parties in Northern Ireland have reached agreement”.  

Photograph: David Trimble and John Hume display their Nobel Peace Prize medallions and certificates

The Belfast Agreement  of 1998, commonly referred as the Good Friday Agreement (GFA),  which ended the three decades  of sectarian conflict in Northern Ireland, laid the foundations for  a workable framework  committing to  a multi-party  power-sharing  assembly.

Elections are of utmost importance in any democratic country and give the power to the people and enable them to choose their leaders. The first Northern Ireland Assembly election of 1998 marked a historic milestone with over 1.5 million   voters choosing to elect 108 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLA).  

In 1998 major parties such as the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), Social Democratic and Labour Party (SLDP) and Sinn Féin, made significant gains in the Assembly elections. The 1998 Assembly election saw a high voter turnout with more than 68 percent of voters peacefully submitting their ballots. Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) party led by David Trimble won 28 assembly seats, while Gerry Adam’s Sinn Féin party won 18 seats in the 1998 elections (The Election Office of Northern Ireland 1973 -2001).   

The Norwegian Nobel Committee awarded the 1998 Nobel Peace Prize jointly to David Trimble, the leader of Northern Ireland's Ulster Unionist Party (UUP ) and  to  John Hume the Leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party (SLDP) for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland.

David Trimble Protestant leader of the Ulster Unionist Party became the First Minister of the new assembly in 1998. Nineteen years later the  Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) won 28 assembly seats and Sinn Féin  won 27 seats in the Assembly election of 2017 (The Election Office of Northern Ireland 2017).

Compared to previous assembly elections the Sinn Féin vote share increased in the past two decades. Looking back into the history, former deputy first minister Martin McGuinness was Sinn Féin's chief negotiator who played a vital role in leading the Republican movement away from violence and  in securing an Irish Republican Army( IRA) arms decommissioning in 2005.

“I grew up watching and hearing about the Martin McGuinness who was a leading member of the IRA engaged in armed struggle. I came to know the Martin McGuinness who set aside that armed struggle in favour of making peace,” said former British Prime Minister Tony Blair following the death of McGuiness.
Although there are many challenges there are many lessons that one might learn from the Good Friday Agreement (GFA). Analysing the negotiation and implementation and the lessons drawn from the Northern Ireland agreement brought peace, stability and stopped bloodshed in the region.

In fact in the case of Northern Island “one island, one state” solution was one of ways the decades-old conflict could be resolved and to achieve lasting peace. In this type of circumstance decision to hold  a referendum in order to ratify the Good Friday Agreement  to  understand the different  perception of  the general population was important before implementing the agreed frame work.   

In practice, third party mediation among the political actors and stakeholders of the conflict contributed to wider peace-building efforts in the Northern Ireland’s peace process. In fact  the  Good Friday Agreement  approach  helped  to ensure  devolve powers  to re-establish some sense of normalcy and  began to develop a sense of identity belonging to Northern Irish society.

In addition at the same time the power  sharing  framework  in the  Northern Ireland agreement brought together rival groups together on different issues  receiving support to enable them to play a more effective role  for them to commit for long term peace and stability of Northern Ireland.

Nineteen years ago the Political stake holders of North Ireland made the right choices to create a positive environment to impact on the peace process. In just a few years, after the Good Friday Agreement Northern Ireland  has made giant steps on the path towards national reconciliation, lasting peace and maintaining stability.



February 2019







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